Monday, January 20, 2020

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Essay -- Sex Discrimination

TABLE OF CONTENTS TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SEXUAL HARASSMENT IS DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .1 Laws That Govern Sexual Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How It Affects The Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 TYPES OF SEX DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Quid Pro Quo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Hostile Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 THE HIGH COST OF LITIGATION FOR EMPLOYERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..8 EMPLOYER?S RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 VII. CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 CASES CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 I. TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION There are many forms of discrimination, especially in the workplace. Before we get into the different types of discrimination, we need to define the word discriminate which is, "to make a distinction in favor of or against a person or thing on the basis of the group, class, or category to which the person or thing belongs, rather than according to actual merit." Taken from the Unabridged Edition of the Random House Dictionary of the English Language. Like many people I was under the belief that to discriminate simply meant that y... ...ts Acts of 1964 (Internet) Whitehead, Roy Jr.; Spikes, Pam; Yelvington, Brenda. "Sexual Harassment In The Office." CPA Journal. Vol. 66 No. 2: pp.42-45, February 1996. Note: All periodicals were found through the Nexis/Lexis system in the Library. CASES CITED Ellison v. Brady, (1991) 924 F.2d 842 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Domino?s Pizza, Inc., 909 F.Supp. 1529 (M.D.Fla. 1995) Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., 114 S.Ct. 367 (1993) Matthews v. Superior Court (Regents of University of California), (1995) 34 Cal.App.4th 598. Mogilefski v. Superior Court (Silver Pictures), (1993) 20 Cal.App.4th 1409. Neal v. Director, District of Columbia Department of Corrections, U.S.Dist. LEXIS, 11461, 11469, 11515 (D.D.C. 1995) Note: Cases cited were researched through the law library.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Business Law Enron/WorldCom Essay

1. Introduction The goal of a large number of criminal acts is to obtain as much as profit for the individual or group that carries out the act. Just like bribery or robbery, accounting scandals that shock telecommunications industry within the past two years, also have similar intention that is to make money to benefit a person or a group of people through illegal acts while disguising their illegal origin. Concerning the accounting scandals in Enron, in this paper, we will elaborate the story of Enron and World Com scandals discussing how the company’s situation relates to bankruptcy, insurance, and/or employment law. 2. Accounting Scandals Enron, Global-Crossing, and WorldCom recent cases have become a history in finance and telecommunication areas. The history tells us how fragile the monitoring process of the company’s financial system is. The situation leads to accountancy scandals that hurt investors, employees, and the industries. In many reports on Houston Chronicle, we can conclude that the case of Enron emerged as the company and its auditor cooked up the books to show bogus profits. This is done so to attract the public so that they are interested to invest their money during the company’s initial public offering (IPO).   Previously, the company has already performed manipulation of commodity prices in order to obtain huge profits due to unregulated energy derivative market. Moreover, the bankers also join this bogey as they have been giving loans and would like to reduce their risk hoping that Enron would obtain much money from IPO so that Enron can fulfill their obligation to the bank. Therefore, in this accountancy scandals there are at least three actors: the first is Enron, the company that has a pile of debt that was off balance sheet. The second actors are auditors; they acted as consultants that helped the Enron to write a fake figure of the company’s profit in the book. The third actors are bankers that issued good analyst reports for Enron financial performance and acted as underwriter. By doing so, Enron can raise much money to pay their loans to banks and back to the evil business when Enron run out of money again. Amazingly, within three years, the fake report gives Enron over $10 billion of investors’ money. The illegal action like cases of MicroStrategy and Xerox has caused the declining public trust on stock markets and auditors (AFL-CIO, 2007; Turner, 2002). 3. Bankruptcy and Insurance The case of Enron, WorldCom and other accounting scandals still leave public with many questions regarding the way the companies try to recover from the scandals especially when it comes to fair treatment for the hurt employees. The term â€Å"fair† refers to equal treatment for CEO and their workers. Remember the shocking Enron case a few months ago that many of people fail to recognize what went wrong at Enron, an energy-trading giant and once the seventh-largest company in U.S. The lawsuits and official investigations on Enron show that the bankruptcy has sent more than 6,100 of Enron employees into unemployment. In addition, it also causes serious fault at workers’ health care and retirement savings—for many, their life savings—because worker 401(k) plans were halted while the company stock price tumbled (AFL-CIO, 2007). Although the company’s performance went bankrupt, however, the Enron’s executive still obtain bonus checks for more than $55 million, in addition to $50 million in bonuses just weeks earlier. The Enron’s case is one example of increasing â€Å"pay gap† between CEOs and workers (AFL-CIO, 2007). Moreover, she also points out that the Project 911 turned out to give many benefits for Enron’s management instead of giving benefits for workers. In the Project 911, Enron was to pay the company’s executives $105 million worth of bonuses prior to the company’s bankruptcy filing in December 2001 (Steffy, 2005). However, according to the new bankruptcy law, which President Bush signed in April, a company might give their executives excessive compensation in the form of retention bonuses only if they have another job offer. It means that under new law, executives will not be paid to stay until they show proof they intend to leave (Steffy, 2005) The new law had driven the bankruptcy court to approve $38.2 million in additional retention bonuses in 2002 and another $29 million in 2003. The situation soon raises critics since the come with an inherent paradox. At the management level, the company took questioned decision to reward the very few people who drove the company into collapse. In other words, Enron was enticing a failed management to stay (Steffy, 2005). This situation refers to moral crisis since the company was paying attention to bonuses for the company’s executives instead of taking care of their employees. Although the case of Enron has become symbol of wrong model of corporate America, few observers expect it to become a lasting symbol (Ivanovich, 2002). In short, the first thing American companies should do is providing variable compensation scheme in which employees’ benefits will increase as the companies’ benefits increase as well. Therefore, employees will fee fairly treated and in turn increase their motivation. 4. Employment Law The cases on Enron and WorldCom present new atmosphere regarding the employment law since it involves whistle blower, a person who disclose the scandals. Since whistle blowing leads to negative impact for the blower, it is imperative that any person that intends to whistle blowing to do it effectively. Sherron Watkins, the person who discloses the scandals at Enron, is one example of whistle blower. In addition, whistle- blowing also greatly affects the executives of a company who are given information from an employee. In order to protect the whistle blower, Sarbanes-Oxley Act rule out there should be no discrimination against employees who disclose the wrongdoing in a company (Hails, n.d.). Amidst the fierce situation at Enron, Congress is still busy passing new laws in response to the latest news about corporate misdeeds. In fact, this is really not the best solution to the problem of corporate fraud at Enron.    Considering that whistle blowing leads to negative impact for the blower as it happens at Enron case, it is imperative that any person that intends to whistle blowing to do it effectively. Below is guideline that helps an employee to determine whether a situation merits whistle blowing: a) Magnitude of consequences A person intends to conduct whistle blowing consider the impact of a action that he consider as wrongdoing. If only one person will be harmed by an action, it does not call for any whistle blowing action (England, 2007) b) Probability of effect The person must be sure that a wrongdoing happens or will happen that requires for whistle blowing. If he is not sure about the situation, he had better not perform whistle blowing (England, 2007) c) Temporal immediacy The person must think the urgency to whistle blowing. If he considers it is urgent to prevent greater losses, he can conduct whistle blowing immediately (England, 2007) In addition, lots of accounting scandals incidences have driven NYSE to issue new guidelines intended to enhance the accountability and integrity and of NYSE-listed companies by strengthening the corporate governance and disclosure practices of those companies. Harvey Pitt, SEC chairperson, the person behind the birth of the guidelines, asks NYSE to review its corporate governance listing standards. Based on the facts, since most scandals involve insider, therefore senior managers should personally liable for criminal charges and damages. Concerning this issue, congress also has passed the Sarbanes Corporate Accountability Bill that one of its main provisions includes the fact that the chief executive officer and chief financial officer now have to sign off on a company’s financial records and may assume criminal liability if they are wrong. Under such circumstances, in the event that such scandals exist, investors and employees should not bear the responsibility for their own actions. This is because in this developed economy, people from all over the world have been willing to invest in ‘pieces of paper’ because of a basic trust that there are systems in place to make the ‘pieces of paper’ valuable. Therefore, it is the government’s responsibility to maintain people trust to invest in a piece of paper by providing an oversight system that works to protect the investor. Learning from these events, it is government’s responsibility to improve standards, controls and accountabilities. While companies should improve their employees moral in order to prevent any financial scandals in the future. This is imperative since most business schools lack of morality in their curriculum.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Should Teammates of P.E.D. Users Have Any Right to Their...

Any type of artificial substance that an athlete takes can be considered as a Performance Enhancing Drug. There are several different classes and each one has a unique effects and side effects. Some of the classes Performance Enhancing Drugs that are commonly used are: lean mass builders, stimulants, painkillers, sedatives, diuretics, boosters, and masking drugs (Wikipedia). Within each of these types of P.E.D.’s there are different drugs. Some may wonder what these classes are. Lean Mass Builders drive or amplify the growth of muscle and lean body mass. This can also reduce body fat and the time that an athlete takes to recover from an injury. Some types of lean mass builders are anabolic steroids, xenoandrogens, beta-2 agonists,†¦show more content†¦Now you may understand why these drugs are considered Performance Enhancing drugs. Each drug takes a different effect to help the athlete preform in a way that is better than their abilities. Some side affects for men who take anabolic steroids may be: developing breasts, having a decrease in sperm count, they may become infertile or become incompetent. Some of the effects on anabolic steroids for women are: growing excessive face and body hair, their voices may deepen, they may experience menstrual irregularities, reduced breast size, or have a masculinized female fetus. Also some of the effects that can happen on any man or women are: getting acne, have oily scalp and skin, jaundice, become bald, have heart attacks, develop significant risk of liver disease, have high levels of bad cholesterol, have mood swings, or suffer delusions (DeNoon). These are only a few of the bad effects of taking an anabolic steroid. What is the difference between an anabolic steroid and a corticosteroid? An anabolic steroid is a synthetic steroid hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle. Such hormones are used medicinally to treat some forms of weight loss and (illegally) by some athletes and others to enhance physical performance. Whereas a corticosteroid is any of a group of steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex or made synthetically. There are two kinds: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. They have various

Friday, December 27, 2019

Inhumane Treatment in Night - 971 Words

The resistance of the Holocaust has claimed worldwide fame at a certain point in history, but the evidence that the evil-doers themselves left crush everything that verifies the fantasy of the Holocaust. For an example, in Poland, the total Jewish population of over thirty-three hundred thousand suddenly plummeted to three hundred thousand. Ten percent of the population survived the Holocaust in Poland. Almost every country that the Nazis have conquered has the same percent of survival as Poland. In Elie Wiesel Wiesel’s memoir Night, the activities in the concentration camps, the suffering of Jews, and the disbelief of the inhumane actions of the Nazis result in making people resist the truth. Activities in the concentration camp†¦show more content†¦The Nazis weren’t the only people who treated Jews like inferior beings; anybody who has the power can treat anything lower than themselves. â€Å"†¦a present whose abnormality suddenly becomes routine.†(Langer 6). The gypsy considered himself as the superior of the group so he could strike anybody he wants (Wiesel 39). When the gypsy’s life becomes too important for him, he has adopted to the way of the Nazis. As the Allied forces advanced, the Nazis led death marches as their last resort because they had concerns about their own lives. â€Å" becomes too much for man and death assuming the throne in the human imagination† (Langer 6). S.S made Jews run for hundreds of miles nonstop (Wiesel 85). They, the SS, were frightened that their cruel ways dug up, decided they had to bury the evidence which explained that they could not believe what the inhumane actions they engaged in with other people. People had the potential to manipulate other people in mass numbers but the second they think for themselves, they will find out what is right and what is not. People resisted the truth due to the activities in the concentration camps, the suffering of Jews, and the disbelief of the inhumane actions of the Nazis. Today, some people do not believe that the Holocaust ever happened. Society should accept the fact that the Holocaust happened and prevent it from happening in the future. By focusing on the traits that led to the Holocaust and society must prevent it fromShow MoreRelated Holocaust Essay1014 Words   |  5 Pages Death and Humanity in the Holocaust nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Within the twentieth century, what event stands out to you as the most inhumane treatment of fellow humans. Without a doubt, most would agree that the Holocaust completely matches this sad frame of reference. The Holocaust in Germany was an unspeakable event in human history. In this terrible act, at its worst in Poland, was the direct cause of the deaths of 62.7% of the Jewish population in Europe (History 1). It is obvious thatRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel : Book Analysis708 Words   |  3 Pagesmore than an illusion as cruel and inhumane treatment replaced them. People felt hopeless and looked to death as an option. Many were intrigued with the idea of death, since it was easier to give up rather than choosing to continue. Majority of people stopped eating, gave up their religious faiths and hope, welcoming the darkness to embrace them. Surviving was a constant struggle for these people and the only way to overcome it was the acceptance of death. Night, by Elie Wiesel, is a memoir of theRead MoreThe Night And Maus Book Review Essay1365 Words   |  6 PagesWiesel’s autobiography, Night, his faith in humanity, his belief in God’s justice and his childhood and innocence destroyed and changed his identity as a result of his experiences during the Holocaust. Vladek Spiegelman, a Polish Jew in the book Maus written by Art Spiegelman, struggles through life during this European catastrophe, but does not portray a memory as affecting as Elie Wiesel’s. Night and the book Maus both contextually focus on survivors of the Holocaust, but Night illustrates a more graphicRead MoreThe Inhumane Treatment Of The Holocaust1714 Words   |  7 Pageskilled- six million of these people being Jewish. Not only were millions murdered, but hundreds of thousands who survived the concentration camps were forever scarred by the dehumanizing events that they saw, committed, and lived through. In the novel â€Å"Night† by Eli e Wiesel, Wiesel recounts the spine-chillingly horrific events of the Holocaust that affected him first-hand, in an attempt to make the reality of the Holocaust clear and understandable to those who could not believe it. What was arguably oneRead MoreNelson Mandela, Revolutionary Revolution, And The United States Of South Africa1523 Words   |  7 Pagesprincipals when dealing with its people. Those who America did not see as worthy did not receive the same treatment or even fair treatment as those who were deemed worthy by the United States government. Those deemed not worthy include Native Americas, Women, members if the Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and transgender groups, as well as people of color kept their dignity in the face of inhumane treatment and eventually prospered enough to achieve their goals. Throughout history the United States governmentRead MoreDbq on the Usefulness of Torture1072 Words   |  5 Pagesprevious cases of torture. It has also been supposed that torture is necessary in order to use the information to save many lives. Torture has been compared to civil disobedience. In addition, the argument has been raised that torture is immoral and inhumane. Lastly, Some say that the acts are not even regarded as torture. Torture is beginning to be seen as ineffective because prisoners have been known to produce false information to evade torturers. In fact, Senator John McCain, a former prisonerRead MoreComparing The Last Night By Sebastian Faulks And Refugee Blues 1617 Words   |  7 PagesCompare the ways in which Sebastian Faulks and WH Auden present the suffering of the Jews The texts ‘The Last Night’ by Sebastian Faulks and ‘Refugee Blues’ by W.H. Auden are similar in a sense that they both describes the suffering and alienation of the Jews at the time of World War Two. However, they are not identical as ‘The Last Night’ is an extract from Sebastian Faulk’s book describing the suffering of the French Jew s journey before they were deported to a concentration camp whereas ‘RefugeeRead MoreElie Wiesel: A Holocaust Survivor723 Words   |  3 Pagesbelieves he has a moral obligation to try to prevent the enemy from enjoying one last victory by allowing his crimes to be erased from human memory† (Wiesel, Night viii). As a result of the horrors that Elie Wiesel experienced during the Holocaust, he devoted his life to become meaningful. Wiesel’s decent disposition changes through atrociously inhumane conduct toward Jews during the Holocaust as he becomes a brute to solidify identity, levy fears , and boost morale. Before his arrival in Auschwitz, WieselRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis1085 Words   |  5 Pagesas humans to be performing something so blatantly inhumane, as with this case in â€Å"The Lottery.† Secondly, there are various historical clues Jackson gives in reference to the dropping of The Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima. As the story goes into much detail about the black box you get a sense of its ominous presents like the Atomic Bomb. The black box holds the fate of the entire village, comparable with the bomb. In addition, Jackson writes, â€Å"The night before the Lottery, Mr. Summer and Mr. Graves madeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Rime Of The Ancient Mariner 948 Words   |  4 Pagesor passive, is a crime against God. The vocabulary of this poem is harsh and sensory oriented. The poem begins with hearing a man groan, which is repeated throughout the poem. Sights are also significant as they display the majority of the inhumane treatment of the slave s experience. Imagery conveys the brutality of the Middle Passage. This is especially prominent with the quatrains focused on the women slave. When the Sailor is forced to flog her, he describes her body as â€Å"mangled flesh†, hearing

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Ethics Essay - 2988 Words

Human Resource Management Ethical Dilemma: The Padding That Hurt Introduction: Ethics is basically the branch of the philosophy that deals with making a difference among right and wrong. In the business world the ethics have taken a essential place in this modern time and every successful corporation have a complete code of ethics that have to be followed by the management, workers and other stakeholders of the company. Ethical behavior in the workplace make it a perfect place for the people working there without any discrimination and this ethical behavior is the main cause of the successful running of the businesses in all parts of the world. In the workplace the ethics includes the integrity, team work, sense of responsibility,†¦show more content†¦Question 1: Idea of Facts: There are various ethical and financial issues being discussed in the current scenario and these issues are elaborated as: The top and major issue of the case under discussion is the monetary frauds from the very trusted worker of the corporation that is unethical at one end as the worker taking advantage of the trust of the company and the friendship of the CEO and on the other hand it results into huge financial losses to the company. The first issue is the frauds from the Mr. Murphy who make fool the company by taking extra funds of the company and for this purpose he used fake and duplicate receipts of the various travel expenses and in this way he take a lot of money of the company. Mr. Murphy is considered a valuable part of the company because of his many efforts for the company and he is taking benefit of this trust and making his own money through fraudulent means that harming the company. Distinction and lack of equality is another issue identified in this case as the CEO at the initial stages even was not ready to listen anything against his valuable worker and do not give much value to the opinion of the Mr. Robert and Miss. Sue Davenport because of his friendship with the Mr. Murphy. This also point out to the lack of the professional attitude of the CEO of the company as he will have to treat all the workers on equal basis and should make distinctions among his professionalShow MoreRelatedEthics And Ethics : Ethics922 Words   |  4 Pagesand friend group to be altered. One change I was not anticipating making was my approach to ethics. Over the course of the past fifteen weeks, my knowledge of ethics as well as my approach to ethics has changed. I have become more knowledgeable about the different approaches to ethics and have gained insight as to where I stand in my approach to ethics. One thing that has changed in my approach to ethics since the beginning of the semester is I am now adamant that it is impossible to arrive at aRead MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics Essay1578 Words   |  7 Pages†¢ Define ethics. Ethics is defined as the moral principles and standards that guide the behavior of an individual or group, while business ethics refers to said behavior in the work environment. Great leaders demonstrate and practice this both personally and professionally. With today’s constant media coverage of unethical decisions and their violators, it can be easy for many to people to assume that ethics codes are â€Å"just for show†. A prime example of the unethical culture that exists in businessRead MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics851 Words   |  4 PagesJohn Berger who stated, â€Å"Without ethics, man has no future. This is to say, mankind without them cannot be itself. Ethics determine choices and actions and suggest difficult priorities† (Berger). His meaning behind that quote is simple. In this world is there a right and a wrong way of doing something? In this world, ethics determines our actions and the consequences that come about those actions, determining right and wrong. The real question is however, are Ethics black and white? Is what is â€Å"right†Read MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics955 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: Ethics is a key moral philosophy that helps us determine what is right and wrong. This paper will talk about my views on ethics. I will share personal examples of ethical situations that I have been in. I will also share where my ethical views originated from and why ethics is important to me. Next, I will discuss how ethics will affect my career and why it will be important in it. Lastly, I will talk about the importance of ethics in the global world. Personal: In my opinion ethics is a moralRead MoreEthics And The Ethics Of Ethics929 Words   |  4 Pages Ethics Nurse’s Before all parties involved can begin a working relationship, each individual should discuss and obtain a written description of the duties expected and the code of ethics that should be respected and followed; by beginning with a clear understanding of ethical values. Ethics: the study of right and wrong and how to tell the difference between them. Since ethics also means people s beliefs about right and wrong behavior, ethics can be defined as the study of ethics. EthicsRead MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics1569 Words   |  7 Pages Ethics In Nursing Rayda M. Garcia Fairleigh Dickinson Universityâ€Æ' Ethics In Nursing The study of ethics, or applied ethics, is necessary for healthcare professionals who often face dilemmas that are not experienced by the general population. The fast-paced growth of medical technology has made the study of ethics even more relevant. The study of bioethics, or biomedical ethics, refers to moral dilemmas due to advances in medicine and medical research. Since medical law and ethics are oftenRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Ethics775 Words   |  4 Pagesmillion to settle a shareholder lawsuit. We can refer from the two previous examples that ethics education is crucial. The main reason for ethics education is that ethics courses and training would help students, who are going to become future managers and business decision makers, to resolve such ethical dilemmas correctly. As we know that most dilemmas often have multiple decision criteria. Business ethics classes would help students to realize which decision criteria lead to a preference for aRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Ethics Essay1491 Words   |  6 Pagesemployees that the work place ethics code forbids using work-place resources for personal financial profit. To make ethically right decision in this ethical dilemma, I will focus on the philosophers’ standpoint and reasoning of ethics of care, ethics of justice, utilitarian ethics and universal principle to analyze the situation. In this tough situation, my conclusion is that I will not report this action to the higher authority although she is violating wor k place ethics code. I will provide my reasoningRead MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics1485 Words   |  6 Pages Ethics is a concept derived from an individual’s religion, philosophies or culture, forming a collection of moral principles carrying out the manner in which a person leads their life. In modern society philosophers divide ethical theories into three separate areas, meta-ethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Meta-ethics refer to the origins and meanings of ethical principles, dealing with the nature of moral judgement. Normative ethics refers to what is right and wrong and concerned withRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Ethics987 Words   |  4 PagesEthics affect every facet of life, especially in a professional community. When a decision is to be made within a community, the ethical decision is typically that which benefits the most people or harms the least people. There are some scenarios however, when the correct decision based on a system of ethics that values doing the right thing is not the decision that leaves behind the least negative impact on the organization. An organization must decide if it will follow the system of ethics that

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Odysseus Isnt a Hero Essay Example For Students

Odysseus Isnt a Hero Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem about a Greek warrior named Odysseus, who just finished fighting in the Trojan War. He journeys home only to find his house overtaken by suitors trying to marry his wife, and kill his son. During his journey he comes face to face with deadly creatures, and has mind-boggling experiences at sea. But after all that Odysseus has done, Im not convinced that he is a hero. He is not a hero because he exhibits a cold-hearted personality, and because Athena gave Odysseus a lot of extra help during his adventures. The true personality of Odysseus finally comes out in The Odyssey. In the story Scylla and Charybdis, Odysseus is previously warned about Scylla, the 6-headed monster, and Charybdis, the whirlpool, and yet he decides hes not going to tell his crew about them, and sails everyone right into the path of the monsters. He even says, But as I sent them toward Scylla, I told them nothing, as they could do nothing, (pg. 885, line 883). Just because his men couldnt do anything about Scylla doesnt mean Odysseus couldnt have. How do you like the beating that we gave you, you damned cannibal? Zeus and the gods have paid you! (pg. 873-874, lines 433-435) Odysseus shouted this to Cyclopes while he and his men were leaving the island. He was taunting poor Cyclops even though he had already escaped from the island and Cyclops could not hurt him anymore. This was such a cold-hearted thing to do to Cyclops, especially when Odysseus had his crew telling him he was being cruel, and that he should refrai n from taunting Cyclops. Odysseus seemed to make decisions and say thing to people regardless of how it affected their life or feelings. Another reason Odysseus is not a hero is because he receives so much extra help from Athena. For example, in the story The Challenge (pg. 907), Athena disguises Odysseus as an old beggar and he attempts to shoot an arrow through several small rings. In the end, he is the only one to succeed, so hes allowed to marry Penelope. Clearly, Athena helped Odysseus in this incident. There is no way he could perform a task like that all by himself, and because of that he shouldnt be named a hero. A hero should be someone who can perform a great task by themselves. Another time Odysseus was called a hero even though he was helped by Athena was in Odysseuss Revenge (pg. 910). In this story it says, Aided by Athena, Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and other faithful herdsman kill all the suitors, (pg. 913). In this case, obviously Odysseus was aided by Athena. The problem is, Odysseus receives all the credit for that battle and seems to take it for granted, never thanking Athena. Like Ive said, Odysseus is not a hero. In his adventures of The Odyssey, he always seemed to lack strong heroic traits. The way he treated people and made decisions was coldhearted and he always received an immense amount of help from Athena, never allowing him to perform true heroic deeds. For the reasons stated above, Odysseus does not deserve a monument, and shouldnt be remembered as a great epic hero.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Political Violence in South Africa between 1985 and 1989

Introduction Apartheid was a political principle that was adopted by the National Party administration of South Africa between 1948 and 1994. It was one of the systems adopted to segregate the black people and deny them their rights. It was aimed at instilling the white supremacy, through maintaining the Afrikaner marginal rule. Apartheid was established in 1945 after the Second World War by the National Party, which was dominated by the minority Afrikaner whites.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Political Violence in South Africa between 1985 and 1989 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though racial discrimination was established by colonialists, the National Party adopted apartheid as a national policy after the 1948 general election. The policy came up with four categories of races including native, white, color and Asian races. This meant that these races had to live in different localities either willingly or by force. In 1970, the apartheid regime proscribed political organizations that were formed by other races. The blacks were forced into being refugees in their own country since their citizenship was nullified. They were forced to live in the ten tribally based autonomous motherlands referred to as Bantustans. Through this, the government could easily restructure the education system, medical care services and other public services, which were distributed racially. The black people could always be mistreated in the public and their culture was devalued. They received inferior services that could not be matched with those of other races. Within South Africa, the natives staged demonstrations to demand for their rights. This was through political violence, which was organized by African leaders and political organizations such as Mandela and UDF respectively. Internationally, the global society slapped economic sanctions, including trade embargo. Since 1950s, the state witnessed v iolence due to practices exercised by the government. Many leaders were imprisoned while others were exterminated. This paper will only concentrate on the activities of political organizations from 1985 to 1989. The Background of Apartheid and Political Violence in South Africa Before 1948, South Africa was a state that was run democratically. Even though racial discrimination was rampant, it existed illegally. Before elections, the major Afrikaner party urged citizens to vote for it since it could introduce apartheid. It closely overpowered its major opponent and formed a coalition regime with another marginal Afrikaner political party. Malan was declared the first premier of the apartheid regime.Advertising Looking for essay on african american? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The officials of the National party tried to justify the existence of the apartheid policy, arguing that South Africa did not have a single homogenous race. The officials of the National party went ahead to sub-divide the population into four major tribes. The white race had more powers socio-economically and politically. Other races existed at the mercy of the white race. The white race involved the English speaking tribes and the Afrikaans. The government approved laws that could divide people based on their races. In 1950, the first law was enacted, which was referred to as the Population Registration Act. The law formalized ethnic classes and came up an identification certificate for each group (Pottinger 89). In 1950 still, the government approved another bill referred to as the Group Areas Act, which allotted each race a specific area. Before then, the government had passed a bill that criminalized marriage between different races. Socio-political and economic discrimination caused many problems in South Africa. Successive presidents of the National Party instituted laws that caused more pain to other races. In the judiciar y, only the white race was employed meaning that judicial rulings favored only whites. Other races could only vote for a white to represent them in the highest law-making organ that is, the parliament. Before the introduction of Apartheid, divisions, conflicts and competition between the two major factions characterized South African political activities. One of the group suggested that conservatism could bring greatness to the state. On the other side, liberals argued that only respect for human rights and freedoms could boost the country’s economy. The apartheid system contributed significantly to internal conflicts. The government responded to these conflicts by deploying security forces to harass demonstrators (Venter 16). Due to this, political organizations gained support from the locals. The government decided to change the approach after realizing that the society supported these organizations. The National Party came up with some reforms that could help in solving th e conflicts between the government and demonstrators. Political protestors were urged to wage peaceful demonstrations after acquiring necessary documents from state agencies, such as the police. In their arguments, non-white political organizations suggested that apartheid government could only be overthrown through mass campaigns. Through this suggestion, students led other demonstrators to push for their rights. Furthermore, political organizations called members to participate in national strikes, boycotts, civil defiance and brutal clashes in order to overthrow the apartheid regime. Political Influence between 1985 and 1989 Between 1985 and 1989, South Africa witnessed a serious political violence, with Africans demanding for independence. The anti-apartheid organizations wanted the Botha government to quit office and leave power to the majority that is, Africans. During this period, radical local leaders urged communities to defy any government order that was unpopular to them. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Political Violence in South Africa between 1985 and 1989 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The communities were against various local authorities and leaders who had been employed by the government since they supported unpopular regime. By 1985, the ANC changed its strategy by ensuring that the urban areas were ungovernable. The party requested various races to default paying rent and other charges imposed on them. Consequently, various councils failed to offer services to whites due to lack of finances. Some were overthrown while others collapsed due to constant conflicts. Youth organizations and militant groups replaced councils that were exorbitant and indifferent to the wishes of the many. Such militant organizations took over responsibilities that were previously reserved for the councils. In other words, tyranny of the multitude was the order of the day. Those suspected to b e working with the apartheid regime received sever punishments. The officials of town councils and other civil servants were forced to migrate to other places because of their behavior. Some were murdered by neck lacing whereby a blazing wood was put around the culprit’s neck. The head of state, P.W. Botha, announced a military rule in the thirty-six authoritative districts following the protests. Furthermore, the president was advised to proscribe various political organizations because they were directly responsible for the conflicts. Due to this, many leaders were arrested while others were put under house arrest. The Botha administration moved to enact a law that gave enormous powers to the police and the military. The state security agencies were allowed to implement curfews in various places facing security problems. They could control the movement of people. Moreover, the president ruled by decree implying that he could issue instructions without pursuing the law. Duri ng this time, the government recommended that it was illegal to use words that were perceived to be hate speech. This could amount to arrest. Upon arrest, the government could not disclose the name of the arrested person. This was actually against the rights of the arrested people, which sparked more violence (Houston 14). People were imprisoned without trial, something that sparked political violence all over the country. In 1986, the president extended the state of emergency to include the whole country due to violence. The government modified the Public Security Act, which gave the government powers to quell violence using all available means. During the same year, the press was highly controlled.Advertising Looking for essay on african american? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government could harass protesters but journalists were never allowed to access the areas. The state used national broadcaster to distribute false information as regards to the uprisings. In 1987, the Botha regime extended the state of emergency for an additional two years (Ross 71). In 1988, the United Democratic Front (UDF) was proscribed because of its activities. The government was dissatisfied with the way UDF operated. Between 1985 and 1989, the political violence persisted mainly because of the economic and political hardships. However, residents themselves were the major problem. Associates of Inkatha and the UDF-ANC groups attempted to outdo each other. The government applied the policy of divide and rule that is, by supporting one side. Political organizations such as ANC and PAC engaged government troops in war. The government attacked the ANC bases and villages while the ANC could strike the restaurants with bombs. In early 1989, was affected by a disease and was urg ed to step aside in February the same year. By the time Botha was leaving office, the economy of South Africa had collapsed and was rated the lowest in the world. The state was shocked when foreign powers imposed various sanctions, including trade embargos. The exit of Botha paved way for discussions, which gave policy makers in government the chance to reconcile with anti-apartheid leaders. The incoming president was liberal since he announced that he could do away with the apartheid policy. He also announced that he could guarantee political freedom and each person could be allowed to elect a leader of his or her choice. Consequently, anti-apartheid groups such as ANC, PAC, SACP and the UDF were allowed to operate freely (Rantete 12). The head of state, F.W. de Klerk, pledged to liberate all political inmates and allow political involvement. Some laws such as the land act were also abolished. Conclusion From the above analysis, it can be observed that political organizations playe d a major role in South Africa between 1985 and 1989. Botha was against political organizations because they interfered with the activities of the whites. It is also true that apartheid was established in 1948 but its effects were felt more from 1985 under Botha. Botha ensured that his regime provided important services to the white race by using brutal tactics to contain the influence of other races. He first proscribed all political organizations and detained some of black leaders. Later on, he ordered the security agencies to unleash terror on demonstrating Africans. After his reign, the new head of state promised to abolish apartheid and introduce political freedoms. Works Cited Houston, Gregory. The National Liberation Struggle in South Africa: A case study of UDF, 1983-1987. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999. Print. Pottinger, Brian. The imperial presidency: PW Botha the first ten years: Johannesburg, Southern Book Publishers, 1988. Print Rantete, Johannes. The African National Congres s and the negotiated settlement in South Africa. Pretoria: Van Schaik, 1998. Print. Ross, Robert. A Concise history of South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. Venter, Albert. Government and politics in the new South Africa. 3th ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2006. Print. This essay on Political Violence in South Africa between 1985 and 1989 was written and submitted by user Marie Thompson to help you with your own studies. 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